IP rights are essentially private rights. The primary obligation of protecting IP rights is on the IPR owners who can seek legal remedies for enforcement of their rights. Along with providing an effective mechanism for enforcement of IP rights, it is equally important to balance the rights of the public in a manner conducive to social and economic welfare and to prevent misuse or abuse of IP rights. There is a need to build respect for IPR among the general public and to sensitize the inventors and creators of IP on measures for protection and enforcement of their rights. At the same time, there is also a need to build the capacity of the enforcement agencies at various levels, including strengthening IPR cells in State police forces. Measures to check counterfeiting and piracy also need to be identified and undertaken. In this regard, the definitions of “counterfeit trademark goods” and “pirated copyright goods” as referred to in the footnote of Article 51 of the TRIPS Agreement shall serve as the guiding principles. Regular IPR workshops/colloquia at judicial academies and other fora for judges would facilitate effective adjudication of IPR disputes. Multi-disciplinary IP courses/modules for other stakeholders are also needed. It would be desirable to adjudicate on IPR disputes through specialized commercial courts. Alternative Dispute Resolution mechanisms may also be explored.